Plantar fasciitis (also known as plantar fasciopathy or jogger’s heel) is a common painfull disorder affecting the heel and underside of the foot. It is often caused by overuse injury of the plantar fascia, increases in exercise, weight or age. Though plantar fasciitis was originally thought to be an inflammatory process, newer studies have demonstrated structural changes more consistent with a degenerative process. As a result of this new observation, many in the academic community have stated the condition should be renamed plantar fasciosis.
Plantar fasciitis is the most common injury of the plantar fascia and is the most common cause of heel pain. Approximately 10% of people have plantar fasciitis at some point during their lifetime. It is commonly associated with long periods of standing and is much more prevalent in individuals with excessive inward rolling of the foot, which is seen with flat feet.
The heel pain characteristic of plantar fasciitis is usually felt on the bottom of the heeland is most intense with the first steps of the day. Individuals with plantar fasciitis often have difficulty with dorseflexion of the foot, an action in which the foot is brought toward the shin. This difficulty is usually due to tightness of the calf muscle or Achillies tendon, the latter of which is connected to the back of the planter facia. Most cases of plantar fasciitis can be resolved in reasonable time and respond well to treatment ,methods of treatment include dry needling massage & stretching techniques for the calf & planter facia area .
Identified risk factors for plantar fasciitis include excessive running, standing on hard surfaces for prolonged periods of time, high arches of the feet, the presence of a leg length iinequality, and flat feet. The tendency of flat feet to excessively roll inward during walking or running makes them more susceptible to plantar fasciitis. Achillies tendon , general calf tightness and inappropriate footwear have also been identified as significant risk factors.